GLOSSARY

keigo

Japanese characteristic polite language

form of speech indicating social status between the speaker and the spoken to

keigo directionality

expression of personal pronouns indirectly

keigo indicates the identity of the speaker and the spoken to by status allusion

go

honourable keigo prefix indicating second person

as gokatei your family, gokeikaku your plan, goyosan your budget vs hei

hei

humble keigo prefix indicating the first person

as heiko my/our bank, heisha my/our company, heiten my/our shop vs go, on

ki

honourable keigo prefix indicating second person

as kisha your company, kiko your bank, kifujin lady but kisama you! is insulting

o

honourable keigo prefix indicating general politeness

as obento a packed lunch, omakase a selection, otosan father, ouisuki whisky

on

honourable keigo prefix indicating the second person

less common than go as onko your bank, onsha your company vs hei cf go

yoroshii

acceptable a keigo term indicating the second person

as naninani ga yoroshii desho ka is such and such acceptable to you Sir

anata

you

considered abrupt/familiar generally avoided by keigo directionality cf keigo

directionality

avoidance of pronouns as being too abrupt

expressing personal pronouns via keigo status markers etc cf go, hei, o, on

kanai

wife

humble term inside the house indicating the speaker's own wife cf keigo

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