1868 Meiji Era 1868 - 1912 modernisation railways 1872 constitutional government 1890 commercial code 1899 etc



railways as for Germany a key element of industrialisation Tokyo Yokohama line 1872 was a demonstration of industrialisation benefits
JR Japan Railways (i) 7 JR successor companies to JNR created in 1987 JR companies put into staged privatisation cf JNR Settlement, NTT, yuseikosha
JR Japan Railways (ii) Honshu + Kyushu 4 passenger networks fully privatised JR East 2002, JR West 2004, JR Central 2006 and JR Kyushu 2016
JR Japan Railways (iii) other 3 networks have severe profitability problems JR Hokkaido, JR Shikoku and JR Freight require further rationalisation
railways List List publication on railways Die Welt bewegt sich 1837 he was the leading promoter of railways in Germany and indirectly in Russia
railways PWE with motorways strong PWE attractions large budget justifiable transport networks perennial disputes cf zokugiin
JNR Settlement scheme to settle Japan National Railways problem 7 JR successor companies created 1987 with clean balance sheets cf shokei saimu
chiho koeikigyo Local Authority Municipal Enterprises LAMEs drinking + industrial water, hospitals, sewerage, underground railways etc
LAMEs Local Authority Municipal Enterprises drinking + industrial water, hospitals, sewerage, underground railways etc
Shinkansen new main line passenger only 4ft 8.5 trunk routes 1930s plan being realised from 1960s cf dangan ressha, Breitspurbahn, railways

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